Egypt: Archeology, Egyptologists, Hieroglyphics and Gods: Part 3

Granite Bay Graphic Design Egypt Microsite IconA GBD Microsite: The Egyptians, Their Ancient Symbols, Their Gods & The Egyptologists: Part 3

Ancient Egyptian Symbols— Hieroglyphics“Protection According to the Myth of the Cobra…”

Celebrating the Explorers

Egyptologist Borchardt, Ludwig

A German Egyptologist, he became an assistant in the Khedive’s School of Egyptology in Cairo where he worked between 1870 and 1879. Later, he became an assistant to Mariette, and an assistant conservator at the Bulaq Museum in Cairo. He later was promoted to Keeper. He worked on Mariettee’s behalf at Saqqara, where he discovered the pyramid Texts in 1881, and was also responsible for clearing the Deir el-Bahari cache in the same year. With two other Boulak Museum assistants, Brugsch went straightaway to the site, claimed it for the Antiquities Service and proceeded to have the cache-tomb hurriedly cleared of its some forty royal and anonymous coffined mummies, during forty-eight hours over a six-day period He was a skilled lithographer and photographer. Unfortunately, he may also have surreptitiously sold museum objects, but to his credit, this may have been done to keep the museum afloat. Before his death, he was made a Bey and Pasha by the Egyptian government.

Egyptologist Budge, Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis

An Englishman, Budge studied Egyptology under Samuel Birch at the British Museum between 1870 and 1878. He later studied at Christ’s College at Cambridge. He went to work for the British Museum after graduation in 1883, and between 1894 and 1924, was a Keeper in the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities. He excavated at Aswan, Gebel Barkal, Meroe, Semna and other Nubian sites. Budge was known as a prolific author with over 140 titles to his credit, some of which continue to be printed.

Egyptologist Burton, Harry

A British photographer born in Lincolnshire, though a resident of Florence, Harry Burton worked from 1914 onward for the Metropolitan Museum of Arts Egyptian Expedition and for Howard Carter in 1922 as the photographer in KV 62. Prior to that he worked for Theodore Davis in the Valley of the Kings. The hundreds of glass negatives he took during he course of the Tutankhamun clearance provide an unparalleled body of reference and are among the finest archaeological photographs ever made. [A]

Ancient Egyptian Symbols— Hieroglyphics and Their Meaning

1, Ouroboros—Symbol of Infinity & Time

2. Cartouche—Symbol of Good Luck

3. Uranus—Symbol of Royalty

4. The Ka—Symbol of the Soul

5. The Feather of Ma’at—Symbol of Justice & Truth [B]

Learn more about each symbol below.

The Egyptian Gods

Anubis: God of the Dead

The Ancient Egyptian God Anubis on a Granite Bay Graphic Design MicrositeAnubis is one of ancient Egyptian mythology’s most well-known and recognizable gods. He was associated with the dead and the afterlife and was considered the god of mummification and embalming. Anubis was often depicted as a jackal or a man with the head of a jackal. It was believed to preside over the weighing of the heart ceremony, which determined whether a person’s soul would be allowed to enter the afterlife. He was also believed to be responsible for guiding the souls of the dead through the underworld and to their final resting place.
As the god of mummification, Anubis was associated with preserving the body after death. He was often depicted in art and sculpture as a jackal-headed figure overseeing the embalming process, which involved removing the internal organs, wrapping the body in linen, and applying various oils and preservatives. Anubis was also closely associated with the cult of Osiris and was believed to be the son of Osiris and his wife, Nephthys. According to legend, Anubis helped to embalm his father’s body after Set murdered him and was therefore considered to be a powerful and influential figure in Egyptian mythology. Throughout Egyptian history, Anubis’ importance remained strong, and he was one of the most widely worshiped and revered deities in the Egyptian pantheon. His legacy continues to be felt in modern times, as he remains a popular figure in art and literature, and his image can be found in museums and collections worldwide. [C, D]

Amun: God of the Air

The Ancient Egyptian God Amarna on a Granite Bay Graphic Design MicrositeAmun was one of ancient Egyptian mythology’s most powerful and revered gods. He was the god of the air and the wind and was often depicted as a man with a tall, plumed headdress or ram-headed figure. Amun was originally a minor god associated with fertility and the creation of life. Still, his importance grew over time as he was merged with other gods, including Ra and Atum. As a result, he became known as Amun-Ra, the king of the gods and the god of the sun. Amun was closely associated with the pharaohs, who considered themselves his living embodiment on Earth. They built many temples and shrines dedicated to him, including the famous temple complex at Karnak. In addition to his role as a god of the air, Amun was considered a god of fertility and the creation of life. He was often associated with the Nile River and the annual flooding that brought new life to the land. Throughout Egyptian history, Amun remained an important figure, and his influence can be seen in many aspects of Egyptian culture, including art, literature, and religion. Today, his legacy continues to be felt in modern times, as his temples and shrines have been restored and preserved, and his image can be found in museums and collections worldwide. [C, D]

More About the Ancient Egyptian Symbols Above

[1] Ouroboros is one of the ancient Egyptian symbols of the sun which represents the travels of Aton and one of the aspects of the sun god. It represents rebirth, perpetuity, and recreation plus showcases the beginning and end across time. The symbol was created when Atum came out of the dark primordial waters of Nun in the form of a serpent renewing itself every morning. The symbol appeared for the first time in the tomb of King Tutankhamun when he was buried in the 14th century BC which showcases the unified Ra-Osiris. It is known as an infinity symbol, it’s used in many different cultures like in Greek and Norse mythology. Note: The Ouroboros is an ancient Egyptian symbol of time, life, death, fertility, rebirth, good health, good luck, and the cycle of life. This symbol has appeared in Gnosticism and Hermeticism and most notably in alchemy in the shape of an emblematic serpent or a dragon that expresses the unity of all things both material and spiritual which changes form in an eternal cycle of total destruction and re-creation. Learn more at Egypt Tours Portal.

[2] Cartouche is one of the most ancient and classical symbols of the ancient Egyptian Civilization, it is a clear connection and powerful symbolism to the sun which showcases the divine protection against evil spirits within this life and the afterlife. In Hieroglyph the cartouche represents the Egyptian-Language word for Name. It is an oval with a line at one end at right angles oval with a horizontal bar with a royal name in the middle. They were written on tombs and coffins to show who was located inside to help the body find its way across the Afterlife. Note: The Cartouche is an ancient Egyptian symbol of good luck, and protection from Evil in life before and after death that’s why it can be found located in tombs. The symbol is believed to be an expanded version of the shen-ring.
Learn more at Egypt Tours Portal.

[3] Uranus is an ancient symbol that represents the cobra the animal representation of the goddess Wadjet of royalty. The symbol is the embodiment of sovereignty, royalty, and divine authority. The ancient Egyptians believed that the Uranus symbol can provide magical powers and protection according to the myth of the cobra that was given to the pharaohs from the god Geb of the earth as a sign of kingship. The Uraeus was used as an ornament for statuary, was found on the top of his crown, and as an adornment on the pharaoh plus for jewelry and in amulets. It was also used in hieroglyph which represents a shrine or a building. Note: Uranus is an ancient Egyptian symbol of royalty, the Sun, sovereignty, protection, divinity, and authority. It describes the legitimacy of the pharaoh and declares him the Great of Magic. It is a Royal Symbol that has been featured with many gods across the ages, it was referred to as the Eye of the Moon, the Eye of Hathor, the Eye of Horus, and the Eye of Ra plus it was shown with many pharaohs such as King Tutankhamun. Learn more at Egypt Tours Portal.

[4] The Ka The ancient Egyptian symbol of the ka means spirit and soul as it was believed to represent the souls of the newly born and resurrected in the afterlife. The Ka is the life force and the spiritual essence of the soul and the most complicated part in ancient Egyptian symbolism and mythology which was viewed as the gateway to the heavens that affects every single aspect of their lives. The Ka was the reception of the life powers of each man from the holy gods. It was also the source of these powers and the spiritual double that resides with every man plus the ultimate symbol for the sustaining and creative power of life. The Ka was part of the soul which was a person’s double that lives inside his body until death. After a person died the spiritual aspect of every human being will be the body but it needs to return back so that’s why the ancient Egyptians mummified to maintain it as long as possible so they could win their chance to enjoy eternal life. Kas of royalty represented individuality while that of the common people are usually related. Divine Kas were believed to be guardians as the Ka of Osiris was believed to be the sentinel of the pyramids and The Ka is often seen with the Horus-name of the king on the pole. The ancient Egyptians viewed the Ka as the conscience or guide of each person plus kindness, honor, compassion, and quietude. The hieroglyph for the ka was the shoulder and arms bent upwards at the elbow. The Ka statues and images are depicted in an idealized state of vigor, youth, and beauty. The Egyptians believed that all mankind was made from clay by the ram-headed god named Khnum. Learn more at Egypt Tours Portal.

[5] The Feather of Ma’at The ancient Egyptians believed that the passage to the afterlife equaled the weight of a feather. One of the most recognized and famous ancient Egyptian symbols is the feather of Ma’at which was one of the forms of the goddess Ma’at who represented the ancient Egyptian’s concepts of order, harmony, law, balance, morality, truth, and justice. The Process of Judgment in the Afterlife was heavily dependent on the feather of Maat. When the body of the deceased was delivered by Anubis to the hall of Truth to stand in front of the ruler of the underworld Osiris then the judgment begins by weighing the feather of Ma’at against the heart of the deceased and the weightlessness of the heart. If the weight of the deceased heart is lighter than the feather then the person enters the eternal land of the field of the reeds but if the heart of the deceased was heavier than the feather of Ma’at then he would be devoured by Ammit a soul-eating monster that makes you vanish from existence. [D] Learn more at Egypt Tours Portal.

[A] is from a feature by Jimmy Dunn in “Tour Egypt”.
[B and D] are from Egypt Tours Portal.
[C] is from Egypt Time Travel.
[D] The artwork of the gods is by Jeff Dahl. It appears on wikipedia and is licensed under under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International, 3.0 Unported, 2.5 Generic, 2.0 Generic and 1.0 Generic license.